The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent function

Cells are the basis for life. Every living thing consists of cells, whether it'd be plant or animal.


-Cell without a nucleus.
-Bacteria are considered prokaryotic.
-usually only have a cell membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and cillia and flagella.


-Cell contains that a nucleus and memberane bound organelles.
-Animal and plant cells are considered eukaryotic.

Animal Cell Plant Cell

The structural differences between plant cells and animal cells are:

Animal cells have cilia or flagella and plant cells don't. (Cilia are little hairs that aid in movement and Flagella are whiplike tails that also aid in movement)
Plant cells have a cell wall (Rigid covering that protects the cell), chloroplast (contains chlorophyll), and a large vacuole (used for storing water and food). Animal cells have vacuoles too but they are much smaller.

Structures in cell:

-Cytoplasm: jelly-like substance that contains thr cytosol organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
-Lysosome: organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death.
-Cell Membrane: the semipermeable membrane that encloses the cell.
-Microtubules: Thin tubes made up of protein used to make structures involved in celluar movement (i.e:Flagella)
-Nucleus: directs all the cells activities.
-Nucleolus:place where ribosomes are synthesized and partially assembled.
-Nuclear Envelope: the double membrance surrounding the nucleus
-Golgi Apparatus: the processing, packaging, and secreting organelle.
-Mitocondria: energy producing organelle.
-Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum(smooth ER):membrane system of folded sacs and tunnels.
-Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum(rough ER): membrane system of folded sacs and tunnels covered in ribosomes.
-Ribosomes:organelle where proteins are made
-same sturctures as above
-Cell wall: hard shell made of long chains of cellulose
-Chloroplasts:chlorophyll containing organelles that absorb sunlight.
-leucoplasts: sotre protiens, starches, and lipid